Author Archives: chelseacolwellpasch

To Read or Not to Read: How to Choose Suitable Scholarly Sources

Back in the days when you had to go to the library and search through the table of contents of tens or even hundreds of scholarly journals, the sources available were limited by access, time and restricted by choice. You had to rely on the title of the article, the topic of the journal or even just the historical focus of the author. Then you would have to read the abstract in order to assess its value to your study. With today’s technology and the progression of online databases for peer reviewed journals, publications and library catalogues, coupled with the now commonplace use of electronic documents, the researcher now suffers from too much choice. The world has expanded tenfold from what was researchable as little as ten years ago thanks to the World Wide Web. When faced with the problem of “too much choice”, how can we filter quickly through the results of a simple database search that may provide over 10,000 matches? This blog will outline the easiest and quickest way to continue your research journey without wasting time on reading articles that are vaguely related to your study or not at all.

As part of my post-graduate Directed Study course (ARCH8404) at Flinders University, I am doing independent research with the aim of producing a professional, industry standard field report in my field of maritime archaeology. While my focus is very specific, the guidelines outlined in this blog are applicable to any research project. I use these same tips for compiling my thesis literature review and Directed Study reference list.

1)      Plan your work and work your plan.

The source finding process can be painless by developing an effective strategy (Hays et al. 2012:54). This means that you have your research question and aims compiled before you start searching for sources. Have a checklist of the types of data you need from your sources (like research design templates, theory, methods, case studies, etc.), as well as a list of keywords from your topic that may be helpful in a database search, just remember that to include alternative spellings and common abbreviations and acronyms to ensure full search coverage (Hay et al. 2012:55; Neuman 2009:28). It has also been helpful to me to use some ‘self-help’ writing guides (Figure 1), many of which helped me to write this blog, like: Making the Grade (Hay et al. 2012), The Dissertation Journey (Roberts 2004), and Understanding Research (Neuman 2009).

Using guides can make your life a lot easier. Odds are, if you are struggling with something, others have too.

Figure 1. Using guides can make your life a lot easier. Odds are, if you are struggling with something, others have too. Photograph by: C. Colwell-Pasch.

2)      Use databases.

While it is understood that some sources, such as large texts and primary sources, will not be available in a database (although some of this data could be, in a digitised form), most of the scholarly sources you will need for your study are available in full text online. Some of the more generic databases, like Google Scholar or your library’s search engine (Figure 2), will provide a great starting point for your journey (Roberts 2004:88). More specific databases can include publisher’s websites that can search through peer-reviewed articles for your topic or keyword. A helpful tip is to use a journal or spreadsheet to keep track of what you have already done in case you need to replicate the search: include date, keywords used, Boolean terms and databases searched (Hay et al. 2012:55; Neuman 2009:28).

Figure 2. Flinders University search engine for locating sources within the library or within accessible publishers websites.

Figure 2. Flinders University search engine for locating sources within the library or within accessible publishers websites.

3)      Check source type credibility.

The task is to find high-quality, relevant, reputable sources (Hay et al. 2012:58). It is  credibility of the source that determines whether or not it is scholarly or useable. Peer-review is a type of quality assurance for sources (Neuman 2009:30). While it is tempting, Wikipedia is NOT a scholarly source. It can be used to point you in a research direction but its lack of regulation and open source format hurts its credibility (Roberts 2004:88). The most credible sources are official government websites, peer-reviewed journals, reputable news sources, edited texts and institutional sites (universities, regulatory agencies, and governing bodies). Individual or business websites, web forums, blogs, materials published with ulterior motives are not recommended for use.

4)      Check specific source relevance.

This means evaluating the new source you just found following the above criteria and looking at it through the lens of your research topic. Some of the important points to think about when considering a source are: relevance, author affiliations (sometimes hard to distinguish), credibility of source, the date of publication (it is important to keep up with the times), and the sources cited (did THEY use credible sources?). This is almost like conducting a ‘background check’ to make sure that by using this source you are not going to get any criticism. By making sure you tick these boxes, there will never be an issue with the source chosen.

5)      When is enough, enough?

You followed the steps above, making sure you have a plethora of scholarly sources to add to your arguments in your study, but when do you stop looking? This is arguably the hardest part of the entire exercise (Roberts 2004:74). Gardiner and Kearns (2010:12) call this ‘readitis’. Always chasing the next source or the next idea. This can be dangerous to your study, because, while having a lot of information is good, you have timelines to meet and formatting to keep in mind. Set yourself up a simple reading schedule where you find and read two articles a day for week. The larger the project, the longer your schedule, but be realistic and set yourself a cut-off date and stick to it!

6)      Organisation is key!

The larger the project you are working on, the more need you will have to keep your sources organised. Programs like Endnote or Readcube are excellent for organising your sources and making them your own personal database of sorts. Do not, however, underestimate the power of a proforma and a binder. I use this method as a way to keep my thoughts organised and I even rate the reference in terms of its relevance to the different sections of my study (Roberts 2004:80). By writing down important theories or arguments while reading, you can make the process of integrating that information into your assignment that much easier (don’t forget the page numbers!) (Neuman 2009:37). Burke and Smith (2004:337) suggest that the minimum you record from a source is:

  •          source title
  •          author
  •          title of journal or book from which source was found
  •          publisher
  •          date of publication
  •          place of publication
  •          page range of source in journal or edited chapter

References

Burke, H., and C. Smith 2004 The Archaeologists Field Handbook. Crows Nest: Allen and Unwin.

Gardiner, M. and H. Kearns 2010  Turbocharge Your Writing: How to Become a Prolific Academic Writer. Adelaide: Flinders Univerity.

Hay, I., D. Bochner, G. Blacket, and C. Dungey 2012 Making the Grade: A Guide to Successful Communication and Study. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Neuman, W.L. 2009 Understanding Research. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

Roberts, C. M. 2004 The Dissertation Journey: A Practical and Comprehensive Guide to Planning, Writing, and Defending Your Dissertation. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.

Yellow Team – You don’t have to get wet to do maritime archaeology!

Authors: Jenny Bonney and Maryanne Williams

The yellow team of Jenny Bonney and Maryanne Williams, with supervision from Rob Koch, Gay Lacsina and Bill Jeffery have been surveying the wreck of the Speke, at Kitty Miller Bay, Phillip Island. The Speke ran aground in Feb 1906 in gale force winds. All of the crew, except one unlucky sailor, managed to make it to shore and were rescued several hours later, by locals. Frank Henderson, a crew member drowned when the lifeboat that he and some others were in smashed up on the rocks.

The wreck of the Speke broke up within a few days of been grounded and over the next few years, many parts that were left were salvaged by locals on Phillip Island and used in many different ways all over the island. The bow of the Speke is the main part of the wreck that is left today, however there are smaller pieces of the wreck scattered all over the beach (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Rob Koch and Bill Jeffery at the bow of the Speke. Photograph by Jenny Bonney

Figure 1: Rob Koch and Bill Jeffery at the bow of the Speke. Photograph by Jenny Bonney

During the first week of the field school, the yellow team took measurements of the pieces of wreckage that are still left on the beach and the surrounding environment, in order to the place the remains of the wreck in context (Figure 2). As well as taking points with the total station, mud maps of the beach and the wreckage were drawn, and photographs of all of the pieces of wreckage and the surrounding area were taken.

Figure 2: Jenny Bonney holding the prism that is used with the Total Station instrument to measure 3-dimensional data. Photograph by Rob Koch

Figure 2: Jenny Bonney holding the prism that is used with the Total Station instrument to measure 3-dimensional data. Photograph by Rob Koch

The Speke is located on the southern part of the Island facing Bass Strait on a beautiful, rugged coastline. The weather varied from 20 to 35oC and from light breezes to 40 to 50 knot winds so conditions were challenging at times but outweighed by the beautiful landscape we worked in (Figure 3).

Figure 3: The coastline in the vicinity of the Speke. Photograph by Maryanne Williams

Figure 3: The coastline in the vicinity of the Speke. Photograph by Maryanne Williams

The site is a 1 kilometre walk from the car park making it  a great way to keep fit, although the trek back to the car late in the day seemed twice as long as the morning trek.

Of interest also was the variety in the cultural landscape of this small bay. We found evidence of a road leading from the foreshore to the cliff above which may have been used by the Speke salvage teams. As well, evidence of shell middens at one end of the beach show the area has been in use for a long time.

In the evening after working all day at the site, we would have lectures of different subjects relating to maritime archaeology and heritage. On one night we went to the Phillip Island Historical  Museum and heard a talk on shipwrecks around Phillip Island from 1854 to 1932 by John Jansson, a local historian. After the talk, we were able to have a look around the museum and chat with some Phillip Island residents.

After completing the archaeological survey at Kitty Miller Bay, we then moved to Rhyll that is located on the northwest part of the island, facing the mainland. After the isolation of Kitty Miller Bay, Rhyll seemed liked a bustling metropolis (population about 100). Here we mapped and photographed the maritime infrastructure that included a boat ramp, old shipyard and jetty that has evidence of 3 different structures including the current jetty (Figure 4).

Figure 4: The old slipway in between the two jetties at Rhyll. Photograph by Bill Jeffery

Figure 4: The old slipway in between the two jetties at Rhyll. Photograph by Bill Jeffery

On Friday 7 February the yellow team went out on the Heritage Victoria boat Trim, implementing a side scan sonar survey. Side scan sonar is an underwater sensor instrument, that is often used to find shipwrecks. The sensor is housed in a ‘fish’ that is towed behind a boat, with pulses of sound sent out on either side of the sensor. These pulses of sound bounce of the seabed and any objects that are on the seabed.

We did the side-scan sonar over the site of the Dandenong, but didn’t find anything. After this we took the boat over the site of another wreck, the ferry Vixen that sank in 1917 (Figure 5).

Figure 5: Maryanne Williams in control of Trim during the side scan sonar survey. Photograph by Rob Koch.

Figure 5: Maryanne Williams in control of Trim during the side scan sonar survey. Photograph by Rob Koch.

So now we have all the data we need it’s time to starting collating it all and make sure our report is completed.

Green Team – Lovin’ Life at the Leven Lass

Figure 1: Panoramic view of shore, looking out to the 'Leven Lass' site

Figure 1: Panoramic view of shore, looking out to the ‘Leven Lass’ site

Authors: Xander Berry, Attila Lukács, and Vanessa Sullivan

The Flinders University Maritime Archaeology Program’s field school has been hard at work for the past week, SCUBA diving up to three times a day, to record the Leven Lass shipwreck site off of Phillip Island, Victoria. Built in 1839 in Scotland, Leven Lass was a brig used primarily for timber trade. The ship ran aground off Westernport Bay in 1854 and has been waiting for archaeologists to tell it’s story ever since!

Although this is not Flinders University’s first time to the site; it is a first for many of the field school participants, including the members of the field school’s Green Team: Xander Berry, Attila Lukács, and Vanessa Sullivan (supervised by Kurt Bennett and Maddy Fowler). As a means to develop students understanding of the skill-set required for underwater archaeological survey, a myriad of archaeology methods have been utilised throughout the course of the field school, including mapping, photography, and geophysics.

Getting Started:

An integral component of any archaeological survey, whether it is above or below the water, is the establishment of datum points. These datum points allow for measurements of artefacts and structures to be made accurately throughout a site. Essentially, the datum point (or datum network) acts as building blocks for the archaeological site survey and provides points of reference at the site.

Figure 2: Xander Berry taking measuring off a datum point

Figure 2: Xander Berry taking measuring off a datum point

The re-establishment of a datum network at the Leven Lass shipwreck site was one of the many tasks students have undertaken as a part of the shipwreck survey. A number of datum points were already put into place during the 2012 field season however, the measurements of each segment needed to be re-measured to account for any changes that likely occurred at the site since 2012. The identification of the datum points from the 2012 season proved to be a beneficial way for students to introduce themselves to the extent and layout of the Leven Lass site.

Mapping the Wreck:

Once measurements for the datum network had been completed, measurements of the ship structure and associated artefacts could begin. The shipwreck is situated in a dynamic environment making something as simple as holding a tape measure extremely difficult. To make the measurement process easier on the team, a baseline was set up between two of the datum points: D and I. The placement of the baseline was selected due to its proximity to exposed hull timbers.

Figure 3: Green Team practicing baseline/offset and trilateration measurements

Figure 3: Green Team practicing baseline/offset and trilateration measurements

Two methods of data point collection have been utilised during Green Team’s survey: baseline/offset and trilateration. The baseline/offset system  uses a right angle between a baseline and the point to  measure, where trilateration relies on measurements from two or more points. At present over 200 measurements have been collected. The points all represent features on the ship structure or of an artefact and can be used to assist in the creation of a detailed site plan. The site plan is a work in progress… Xander is entering data into the Site Recorder program as this blog is being written!

In addition, detailed and small-scale mapping has been completed for areas along the baseline that have parts of the ship structure that are more intricate. These small-scale drawings are going to be overlain on the Leven Lass site plan and perhaps even aligned with scaled photographs of the site and ship components.

Photographing the Site:

Photography has been used throughout the surveying process to document the shipwreck site as well as the surveying process at the site. Dr. Jonathan Benjamin, with Flinders University, gave a lecture to students on underwater photography so that the students had some basic knowledge on camera settings and photographic methods. Photography has played a crucial role in the data collection process at the Leven Lass site: photographs of individual artefacts, photographs along the baseline, and photographs of the surveying process have been taken on a daily basis.

Attila has worked on combining several photos that were taken of the ship’s wooden planking to create a photomosaic. This photomosaic has been extremely useful in assessing the artefact back on dry land and being able to look at the piece as a whole, rather than just what the visibility in the water allows for. It is a team goal to be able to create such detailed images for other artefacts as well, however that is all dependent upon visibility and, of course, time.

Figure 4: Photomosaic of wood planking at the Leven Lass Site

Figure 4: Photomosaic of wood planking at the Leven Lass Site

Where are we?:

Although the datum network allows the team to understand where they are working within the site, it does not provide an understanding of the shipwreck’s location in relation to the rest of the world. For this reason, Green Team took GPS points from the shoreline as well as four of the datum points and a feature on the shipwreck site. The Leven Lass GPS points were collected by floating a buoy from the datum points, to the surface, and collecting the GPS data at the buoy. Having the GPS points enables the team to geo-reference the site and overlay the data onto existing nautical charts and maps.

Life at a field school has not only been about work below the waves; it has also included a series of lectures on the various components of maritime archaeology, use of computer programs to log and record the data collected at the site, and hours spent trying to make sense of the ever chancing Leven Lass archaeological site. Green Team still has a couple more days of hard work ahead of us, and with each passing day more and more of the Leven Lass site becomes visible, bringing new information to the surface with each dive!

Figure  5: Green Team! (From left to right): Maddy Fowler, Kurt Bennett, Xander Berry, Vanessa Sullivan, and Attila Lukács

Figure 5: Green Team! (From left to right): Maddy Fowler, Kurt Bennett, Xander Berry, Vanessa Sullivan, and Attila Lukács

Blue Team – Happy and gay at three meters, Maritime Archaeology Field School

Authors:  Peta Straiton, Mark White, Richard Pauley and Jonathan Bauer

After the long 868 kilometre trip from Adelaide to Phillip Island, Victoria, all field participants were keen to get straight into work [after a good night’s sleep of course]. Participants were divided into colour coordinated groups. We, the “Blue Team” consist of Mark White, Jonathan Bauer, Peta Straiton and Richard Pauley, and is supervised by the wonderful Jane Mitchell, and the beautiful Julie Mushynsky.

Unfortunately, the Blue Team’s plans for day one were thwarted by bad weather which made for unsafe diving conditions. To combat their dismay the Blue Team (along with all the other teams) worked in their groups to refresh their skills in conducting baseline-offset surveys, trilateration, and photography.

With more promising weather on the second morning all divers headed out to the beach to ensure that everyone’s skills were up to scratch. Luckily everyone passed. Despite a slight breeze, the search for the underwater site began. The Blue Team was scheduled to be the second group in the water, however, the weather once again turned sour. Strong surges and limited visibility rendered the site unsafe. Fortunately for the Blue Team we were still able to catch some sun on the beach and even under take some foot surveys do a little bit of work.

Wednesday proved to be a far more successful day for the Blue Team. We travelled to Rhyll Beach where a cool breeze and hot sun could not stop us from undertaking magnetometer surveys, conducting metal detector sweeps, gathering GPS points and performing baseline-offset surveys.

The team, in conjunction with John Jansson (a local historian and shipwreck enthusiast) were trying to locate an old wreck that was originally named the Oscar but was later called the Ventnor. Mr Jansson provided us with valuable information about the history of this vessel.

Built in 1874 as a 29-ton, 73-foot scow hull at Footscray (Melbourne) for the Carlton and United Breweries, the vessel regularly  transported beer to Williamstown (J. Jansson pers. comm. 5/2/14). However, in January 1923, the vessel was purchased by the Phillip Island and Western Port Steam Shipping Company to act as a ferry after they added a wheel house.  The vessel was to be captained by Jack Johanaugust Jansson, Mr Jansson’s grandfather (J.Jansson pers. comm. 5/2/14). In 1925 the vessel was laid up and its superstructure dismantled. The remains of the hull were later beached and dismantled. John  Jansson (pers. comm. 5/2/14) confirmed that this timber-built ship contained metal fastenings for the team to discover.

To assist with the growing population of the island and Rhyll Beach’s popularity a seawall was constructed to provide a stable area near the beach where families could sit and relax. The seawall currently rests directly on top of the vessel’s remains. While the data from the magnetometer is still being processed and analysed, the metal detector did manage to locate several features and may possibly be the fastenings of the ship’s hull.

By using the baseline-offset survey technique, we recorded the remains of the old retaining wall for the original slipway (Figure 1). Located on the eastern side of the current slipway and surrounded by basalt rock, these remains help to define the extremities of this original access point.

Figure 1: Remains of the timber slipway retaining wall, facing northwest.  Photo taken by Peta Straiton.

Figure 1: Remains of the timber slipway retaining wall, facing northwest.
Photo taken by Peta Straiton.

Thursday proved to be a day full of learning, excitement and challenges that the Blue Team were ready to face head on. By 8:00 AM, we were on the road to the boat ramp to finally dive the site; the site we had all come to see. After a small hiccup (of misplaced diving equipment), we entered the water for our first dive, and what an amazing dive it was. Flat calm seas, good visibility, and hardly a breath of wind. The team did not waste any time, going full force into their assigned tasks. Laying a baseline for surveys, photographing features and creating site plans. All was going well until we got out of the water only to discover we had lost the entire site plan and photo log.

After changing our tanks, eating lunch and quickly discussing what we did well and what needed improvement, we were back in the water with stronger plans, stronger minds and more determination than ever. Continuing with the tasks we did not finish (or re-doing what was lost), the team were all smiles and laughs as they hauled themselves into the boat to return to camp, happy with a job well done (Figure 2).

Figure 2: Peta Straiton, photography, Richard Pauley recording with Julie Mushynsky.  Photo taken by Jonathan Benjamin.

Figure 2: Peta Straiton, photography, Richard Pauley recording with Julie Mushynsky.
Photo taken by Jonathan Benjamin.

Friday morning was similar to Thursday, with the team packing to be ready to leave at 8:00 AM. Continuing with baseline-offset measurements and scale drawings, the first dive went smoothly. Returning to shore with a sense of accomplishment the team changed tanks, ate, and once again returned to the site. While the second dive proved to be more complex than the last, with strong surges and visibility down to one metre, the team proved that we have what it takes to get the job done.

With the first week at an end and the second just about to begin, all team members are enjoying the complexities that the field school presents mentally, emotionally and physically. We have all enjoyed the camaraderie that has developed, and we have already created memories never to be forgotten. All we can say is that, so far,  we have had a positively Gaytime (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Richard, Mark, Jane, and Jon, enjoying an Aussie Golden Gaytime.  Photo taken by Peta Straiton.

Figure 3: Richard, Mark, Jane, and Jon, enjoying an Aussie Golden Gaytime.
Photo taken by Peta Straiton.

Red Team – Flinders University Maritime Archaeology Field School: Taking Geophysics Down Under

Authors: Lauren Davison, Josh Russ, and Tim Zapor

From 2nd February, 2014 until 16th February, 2014, Flinders University teaches its Maritime Archaeology Field School in which students have a unique opportunity to have hands-on training in the field. Generally, only a few people get such experience until they reach a professional level.  Students from around the world get a chance to gain valuable knowledge from professionals, historians, PhD. candidates, and local societies around Phillip Island, Victoria, Australia.  This experience gained is invaluable and helps to elevate the growth and knowledge of these aspiring professionals in a field of great importance to cultural heritage.  Archaeology is a field in which professionals and the community share in the protection of a finite resource that will be lost without the cooperation of both parties.

Figure 1: Field school ‘check-out’ dive at Cowes Jetty, Phillip Island, Vic. [Photo taken by Lauren Davison].

Figure 1: Field school ‘check-out’ dive at Cowes Jetty, Phillip Island, Vic. [Photo taken by Lauren Davison].

Figure 2: ‘Check-out’ dive surface attendants Vanessa Sullivan (Green team) and Josh Russ (Red team) [Photo taken by Lauren Davison].

Figure 2: ‘Check-out’ dive surface attendants Vanessa Sullivan (Green team) and Josh Russ (Red team) [Photo taken by Lauren Davison].

In collaboration with Heritage Victoria (HV) (Peter Harvey and Toni Massey), the Maritime Archaeology Association of Victoria (MAAV) (Peter Taylor and Des Williams), and Flinders University, students have made preliminary evaluations of possible shipwreck sites off the coast of Phillip Island using a side scan sonar from HV’s vessel Trim.

Figure 2: Peter Harvey (HV) and Peter Taylor (MAAV) helping Tim Zapor plot points for the side-scan sonar survey grid on Trim (Photo taken by Lauren Davison).

Figure 3: Peter Harvey (HV) and Peter Taylor (MAAV) helping Tim Zapor (Short course student) plot points for the side-scan sonar survey grid on Trim (Photo taken by Lauren Davison).

One such wreck that was discovered is Vixen, which was a schooner-rigged, carvel-built ferry that sunk in 1917 while under-tow from Phillip Island to Melbourne, Vic.  Vixen had taken on water while moored at Rhyll when the topside seams burst open in 1915 (Jansson 2013).  On the 20th of July 1917, the tugboat Sprightly was towing Vixen to Melbourne for repairs when it became unattached and started to founder.  There was an attempt to run the vessel aground at Rhyll (Phillip Island) but it failed and Vixen sank about a mile east of Cowes Jetty. The exact location of the shipwreck site was unknown until the 6th February, 2014 when a team of professionals, students, and local society members located the long lost ship remains (Department of the Environment 2013).  The team was able to successfully locate the wreck with the use of local knowledge of events surrounding the wrecking event as well as the advanced technology of side scan sonar.

Figure 6: Vixen at Cowes, November 1902 – A.J. Campbell, Museum of Victoria Collection (Photo courtesy of John Jannson).

Figure 4: Vixen at Cowes, November 1902 – A.J. Campbell, Museum of Victoria Collection (Photo courtesy of John Jannson).

In underwater archaeology, geophysics is the scientific study of features below the surface or seabed using a range of instruments including side scan sonar to produce an image (Bowens 2009:217).  Side scan sonar is a method that uses sound that reflects off the seabed and objects and produces shadows that with enough experience can be interpreted and then investigated.  Side scan sonar emits sound waves that strike the sea floor and creates imagery by recording the timing and amplitude of those sound wave reflections (Bowens 2009:218).  This method cannot replace divers on the seafloor, but greatly aids in the locating of shipwrecks and other material on the seabed especially in hazardous conditions.  This is exactly how the Vixen was located.  Peter Harvey and Toni Massey from Heritage Victoria kindly lent their assistance and boat Trim and with the knowledge acquired from Peter Taylor and Des Williams (MAAV) after countless hours of research and years of looking for the Vixen; allowed students to participate in an astounding find for Phillip Island and for most of the students, their first shipwreck.

Figure 3: Peter Taylor (MAAV) and Des Williams (MAAV) pulling up the ‘tow-fish’ (HummingBird Sonar 898) after the side-scan sonar survey (Photo taken by Lauren Davison).

Figure 5: Peter Taylor (MAAV) and Des Williams (MAAV) pulling up the ‘tow-fish’ (HummingBird Sonar 898) after the side-scan sonar survey (Photo taken by Lauren Davison).

Figure 4: Vixen shipwreck imaged from the side-scan sonar (image captured 6th February, 2014).

Figure 6: Vixen shipwreck imaged from the side-scan sonar (image captured 6th February, 2014).

The image above shows a slight deviation from the seabed that, to the untrained eye, doesn’t appear to be much, but with experience one can start to ‘pick out’ these variations.  Experience comes with hours of observing these images and experts can start to identify the presence of possible shipwrecks.  After locating a possible site, divers are needed to confirm the remains because not every image is necessarily a wreck.

Figure 5: The Red Team left to right: Josh Russ, Supervisor Toni Massey, Tim Zapor, Supervisor Chelsea Colwell-Pasch, and Lauren Davison (Photo taken by Des Williams).

Figure 7: The Red Team left to right: Josh Russ, Supervisor Toni Massey, Tim Zapor, Supervisor Chelsea Colwell-Pasch, and Lauren Davison (Photo taken by Des Williams).

The use of side scan sonar helped to limit the time and cost of endless hours of diver searching that would produce little results.  This method allowed for a non-invasive and in-situ identification and preservation of a wreck that would be otherwise lost forever.  Local historian John Jansson, and fellow local historians, have an invested interest in preserving the culture of the area and helping to educate people on the history surrounding the ships as well as the intangible heritage that brings the human perspective to the physical remains.  The cooperation between local community members and professionals alike, such as was undertaken in this investigation, aids in the preservation of the world’s heritage, one shipwreck at a time.

References

Bowens, Amanda (editor)

2009 Underwater Archaeology: The NAS Guide to Principles and Practice. 2nd ed. Blackwell Publishing, West Sussex.

Campbell, A.J.

1902 Museum of Victoria Collection.

Department of the Environment

2013 Australian National Shipwrecks Database. Electronic document, http://www.environment.gov.au/heritage/shipwrecks/database.htm, accessed February 8, 2013.

Jansson, John

2013 Personal Communication.