Author Archives: riha0


By Rikke Hammer (Master of Cultural Heritage Management student)

One component of my industry practicum with PhD student Adam Paterson involved producing interpretive materials for a public archaeology event held during the Port Festival on November 8 and 9 2011.  Applying the principles of tiered communication and interactive presentation, I conceptionalized and designed two posters and one children’s activity brochure for use at the event.


The first poster I created was to accompany and supplement a life size reconstruction of a section of the 2003 Port Adelaide Jane Street excavation trench. The poster had two main aims. First, to provide a brief introduction to the stratigraphic principles and methods used by archaeologists to decipher the past; and second, to engage the visitor by stimulating thoughts and questions about the depositional events that formed the Jane Street site over time and how identifying these events is critical to understanding the site’s history.

The poster makes use of the strong base colours of orange and cobalt blue and a lighter grey for eye-catching contrast. In addition, headlines in italic typeface and different sized text were used as attention grabbers. The main focus of the poster is a large scale photograph of a section of the Jane Street trench that largely corresponds to the area represented by the reconstructed section profile. Dashed lines and text describe the stratigraphy of the section, while the orange column to the right explains the law of superposition and asks questions that engage and demonstrate to the visitor how archaeologists read the soil to infer information about the past. The poster can stand on its own without further explanation or it can be used as supplementary information to the reconstructed section profile.

At the Port Festival event in Port Adelaide both the poster and the brochure operated at a further interpretive level, as the location of the public archaeology stand was at the site of the 2003 Jane Street excavation trench. Visitors were therefore able to directly relate the information from the interpretive materials to the buried landscape beneath their feet, thereby making the information more relevant to their here-and-now experience and contributing to a greater sense of place.


The popular perception of archaeology is often linked with the recovery of megafaunal remains or influenced by media portrayals, such as the action-packed adventures and mysteries of ‘Indiana Jones’ and one-sided documentaries about golden treasures and lost civilizations.  Another common, but too narrow, understanding of archaeology is that of excavation and of the archaeologist as an excavator.  This issue was addressed with the second poster titled: “What is archaeology?”.

The conceptualization of the poster was loosely inspired by previous work by myself in a non-archaeological context and by the interpretive signage strategy at the Kings Reach tobacco plantation site in Maryland, USA.  Also key to the design are the principles of tiered communication.

The three base colours, blue, orange and gray, used in the stratigraphy poster above were carried through to the ‘What is archaeology’ poster for aesthetic coherence. The interpretive content centers around six themes that convey archaeology as a logical process from the discovery of sites and objects through to their management. The integrated use of imagery, text and colour coding to convey the message was critical to the design philosophy of the poster.  Each theme was assigned a colour for ease of navigation around the poster.  For example, all information (pictorial or text) pertaining to the theme of fieldwork were indicated by the colour blue. The visitor then has two choices: to experience the story of each theme in pictures, horizontally, or to obtain more detailed information via the text. By colour coding the themes visitors are able to easily and selectively extract the level and depth of information they require for each theme.

The Jane Street archaeology stand at the Port Festival also displayed posters that informed visitors of the 2003 Jane Street excavation and about how artefacts recovered at the site have contributed a better understanding of the working class value of ‘respectability’ in the Port during the 19th century.  These posters were produced by Adam Paterson. In addition, the ‘Take the Plunge’ team drew  attention to their cause to get Australia to ratify  the UNESCO 2001 Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage through the display of a poster on the subject.

Communicating archaeology: children’s activities

By Rikke Hammer (Master of Cultural Heritage Management student)

As part of the Port Festival 2011 public archaeology event in Port Adelaide a number of interactive  activities were run specifically aimed at children. The activities were themed around the analytical process in archaeological research and encouraged the children to observe, predict, record data and make conclusions.  On site, children were engaged with assembling broken ceramic vessels with tape.  Drawing the assembled object and completing an activity sheet, borrowed from “The Young Archaeologist’s Club” in Britain, the children were asked to touch, feel, observe and answer questions about their object.

In supplement to the above on-site activities I conceptualized and designed a take-home activity for distribution at the event aimed at children aged 6+ years old. The activity is also well-suited to families. The remainder of this blog post explains the ideas and principles that went into this work.

The activity, titled ”Jane Street Post-excavation Analysis”  is based on the principles of tiered communication and interactive presentation.  The activity focus on the site formation processes evident at the Jane Street site – which was also the location of the public archaeology stand – and tied in with other interpretive materials created for the event: a stratigraphy poster and a life-size reconstruction of a section of the Jane Street  excavation trench (excavated by Susan Briggs as part of her PhD). The intended sum effect of this strategy was to  create a greater sense of place and to add relevance to the learning by providing an opportunity for children and their parents to explore and puzzle-solve questions similar to those asked by the archaeologists about the site during the 2003 excavation.  A third intended purpose was to illustrate the importance of (and relationship between) stratigraphy, chronology and material remains in archaeological interpretation.

The activity is designed in a z-folded brochure format with three panels (six pages) and makes use of strong contrasting colours, varying font sizes and styles and alternating text colours to create a fun look.

The layout and content of the brochure is shown in Figures 1-4 and described below:

Figure 1 Kids activity brochure Z-folded (front)



Panel 1
Page 1



Panel 2
Page 2



Panel 3
Page 3

Figure 2 Kids activity brochure Z-folded (back)






Panel 1
Page 4



Panel 2
Page 5



Panel 3
Page 6

Figure 3 Kids activity brochure: Front (folded)

Figure 4 Kids activity brochure: Back (folded)


Page 1  provides a complete view of the Jane Street trench profile that forms the interpretive basis for the activity.

Page 4  forms that back side of the brochure and introduces and sets out the tasks of the activity. (See Figure 2 and 4)


Page 2  is both a key to the stratigraphic profile and an answer sheet.

Page 5  provides hints for helping to solve the puzzle of how the site formed and answering  the questions set out in the activity. The hints provided include the Law of Superposition, relevant historical information about the site and basic advice for solving questions of chronology.


Page 3  forms the front side of the brochure and contains the stratigraphic layers as puzzle pieces that can be cut out and used to understand how the site formed over time.  Only project and industry partner logos (displayed on the reverse side (page 6) will be compromised when the pieces are cut out.

Page 6  Project and industry partner logos

In summary, the main intended interpretive outcomes for the activity were:

  1. to introduce the children to key concepts and terminology used in archaeology;
  2. to equip the children to make their own interpretations of the past using some of the same methods as archaeologists; and
  3.  to convey the message that the past is like a puzzle that needs be connected by many different pieces of information before a picture can emerge.


Public interpretation and the Port Adelaide Community Archaeology Project

By Rikke Hammer, Graduate Student

This blog post is the first in a series of seven reflecting on various aspects of my four week industry practicum with post-graduate student Adam Paterson at Flinders University. Adam is doing his Phd research on understanding how public participation in archaeological research can contribute to and improve management of cultural heritage. The research forms part of the Port Adelaide Community Archaeology Project and is funded by the Australian Research Council. Also supporting the project are the South Australian Department of Environment and Heritage, the South Australian Maritime Museum and Archaeological and Heritage Management Solutions (Paterson n/d).

The Port Adelaide Community Archaeology project has involved several excavations around Port Adelaide, an area unique for its buried landscape of 19th century buildings and artefacts resulting from continuous deposition of sediment material to prevent against flooding. One of these excavations, the site of two 19th century working class family homes in Jane Street, excavated by Susan Briggs in 2003, will form the basis of a public archaeology event to be held during the Port Festival in Port Adelaide on 8 & 9 October 2011. It was  preparations for this public happening that occupied my time during the first week of the practicum. The event will be executed as an interactive “meet the archaeologist” event and will include opportunities for people to test their archaeological illustration skills as well as explore the practical and interpretive aspects of archaeology through learning how archaeologists read the soil and its contents. One idea for the event is to reconstruct the stratigraphic profile of two separate sections of Briggs’ 2003 excavation trench that illustrate different aspects of the site and the archaeological process and to incorporate authentic artefacts from the excavation. Plates 1 and 2 shows the sections selected for reconstruction.

Plate 1 Section one, collapsed wall.

Plate 2 Section two, brick, stone and cobble floor and vertical stratigraphy of yellow sand lenses underlying grey beach sand.

As part of the public outreach program heritage posters will also be produced. My task specifically, was to identify the stratigraphic contexts and artefacts found in the sections of Brigg’s trench that Adam wants to recreate based on photographs and site records. A second task involved reading up on interpretive archaeology focusing on tiered communication and interactive presentation strategies.  My next blog will focus more on the topic of public archaeology and the latter two concepts that are core to a well-designed and successful interpretation program.

Paterson, A. n/d Port Adelaide Community Archaeology. Retrieved 12 August
2011 from

Industry partners:
South Australian Department of Environment and Heritage:
The South Australian Maritime Museum:
Archaeological and Heritage Management Solutions: