Maritime Archaeology Field Practicum 2014 Day Two

Gold Coast Wreck Conservation Project – Maritime Archaeology Field Practicum

Day two and we headed to Queen Elizabeth Park, Coolangatta to record an intact section of the shipwreck recovered in 1974 containing a wale, three hull planks, frames, fasteners and sheathing (Figure 1).

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Figure 1: Kevin Rains, Jane Austen, Wendy van Duivenvoorde, Peta Fray, Amelia MacArthur Lacey, Dana Gilmore with the intact section in Queen Elizabeth Park, Coolangatta (Photo Lauren Davison 2014).

Overall pictures and detailed photos of individual features were completed (Figure 2) and a scale drawing of the shipwreck section was completed using baseline offset survey (Figure 3). Patent marks were found on the sheathing with these features being recorded through rubbings (Figure 4) and photographs. Tracings were also taken of the sheathing and upper planks to find patterns in the holes (Figure 5).

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Figure 2: Kate Greenwood photographing the back of the section (Photo Lauren Davison 2014).

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Figure 3: Peta Fray and Lauren Davison baseline offset survey (Photo Toni Massey 2014).

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Figure 4: Dana Gilmore taking rubbings of the patent marks (Photo Lauren Davison 2014).

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Figure 5: Dana Gilmore and Kate Greenwood tracing copper sheathing and Brad Guadagnin, Peta Fray and Lauren Davison baseline offset survey (Photo Toni Massey 2014).

A slight change in staff for the afternoon. Paddy, Kate and Dana went to the Tweed Heads Historical Museum for historical research while Mark joined the group in Queen Elizabeth Park. Activities were similar to the morning with the scale drawing, tracing of timbers with the addition of recording the frames and fasteners undertaken by Mark and Brad (Figure 6).

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Figure 6: Brad Guadagnin and Mark Polzer recording frames (Photo Lauren Davison 2014).

The day ended with Trevor Winton from Jacobs Consulting and MAAWA joining us to help for the rest of the week.

Maritime Archaeology Field Practicum 2014

Gold Coast Wreck Conservation Project – Maritime Archaeology Field Practicum.

The Maritime Archaeology Field Practicum for 2014 is taking place on the Gold Coast, Queensland, where five students – Brad Guadagnin, Kate Greenwood, Peta Fray, Dana Gilmore and Lauren Davison – and two Flinders staff members, Wendy van Duivenvoorde and Mark Polzer (along with assistance from baby Isabelle), are recording and investigating a section of a shipwreck recovered in 1974. While popularly believed to be Coolangatta that wrecked in 1846, it has also been suggested that the remains are Heroine which wrecked in 1897.

Day one consisted of the usual introductory meeting and site induction where we met our partners from the Department of Environment and Heritage Protection, Paddy Waterson, Amelia MacArthur Lacey and Toni Massey, and the Gold Coast City Council (GCCC), Kevin Rains and Jane Austen without whom this field practicum would not be possible.

A trip to the GCCC Depot was the order of the afternoon where we were given access to shipwreck remains which included frames, planking, anchors, and fasteners (Figure 1). Once familiar with the remains we soon got to work undertaking baseline offset survey (Figure 2), photography, and anchor recording (Figure 3).

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Figure 1: Shipwreck remains at the Gold Coast City Council Depot (Photo Lauren Davison 2014).

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Figure 2: Brad Guadagnin and Toni Massey undertaking Baseline offset survey (Photo Lauren Davison 2014).

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Figure 3: Recording anchors at GCCC Depot, Wendy van Duivenvoorde and Dana Gilmore (Photo Lauren Davison 2014).

Site Delineation with an Underwater Metal Detector

by Hunter Brendel, Master of Maritime Archaeology student

It is a certain fact that all field archaeologists are aware of – equipment does not always behave the way you want it to. Yet when it doesn’t, the opportunity for “McGuiverism” is there. During the Flinders 2013 field school at Port MacDonnell, we had certain technical issues with the magnetometer we were using. Luckily for us, the staff came prepared with underwater metal detectors. By using metal detectors, we were able to conduct transect surveys to delineate a possible shipwreck site on shore (Figure 1). Students used the metal detectors to detect pings that were then marked on a survey plan.

Figure 1. Myself (left) and fellow student Chelsea Colwell-Pasch (right) conducting a metal detector survey on shore during the 2013 Flinders University Maritime Archaeology field school.

Figure 1. Myself (left) and fellow student Chelsea Colwell-Pasch (right) conducting a metal detector survey on shore during the 2013 Flinders University Maritime Archaeology field school.

Later on, we used the same transect method to delineate our shipwreck, Hawthorn, which was located approximately 10 meters off shore. Since the wreck was in the surf, we students were able to replicate the transect survey techniques used on land by snorkeling and marking pings on a Mylar survey plan slate. All we needed to do was give a thumbs up every time we heard a ping, and our dive buddy was there to mark where the ping came from. Two other students held down the transect line and moved it every time we cleared a lap. Simple enough, yet effective in practice.

The Lighthouse Archeological Maritime Program (LAMP) devised a similar strategy for their 2014 Storm Wreck field season after experiencing magnetometer issues themselves. Brian McNamara, a fellow 2013 Flinders field school student and LAMP archaeologist, devised a plan to use a metal detector to delineate the Storm Wreck site. Only this time was different. Site conditions such as an eight meter depth of the site, poor visibility (really poor visibility), and chance for swells were unlike those we experienced in South Australia. Not to mention it had to be done on SCUBA.

So we hit the drawing board and came up with a plan to delineate the Storm Wreck site by using an underwater metal detector. I was to carry out the trial run by delineating a 10×10 meter area south of the Storm Wreck site (Figure 2). Listed are the materials we needed to SCUBA with to effectively carry out the underwater detector survey:

  1. A ten meter polypropylene transect line with every meter marked with a zip tie. At the five meter mark was a looped zip tie.
  2. Two fiberglass rods.
  3. Measuring tape.
  4. Down line with a diver flag attached to a buoy.
  5. A mushroom anchor to hold the down line and western end of the transect line.
  6. A weight belt and weights to hold the the eastern end of the transect line.
  7. Underwater metal detector.
  8. Mylar slate and pencils (lots of pencils) for a survey plan.
  9. SCUBA gear, cylinder, compass, etc.

First, my student dive buddy and I brought with us a mushroom anchor and down line with a diver flag attached to a buoy. Then we swam to a screw anchor that held southern end of the baseline in place. At the screw anchor, my student dive buddy held the middle loop of the polypropylene transect line in place. I swam east, end of the transect line in-hand, to stretch out the transect line, which I tied to the weight belt so that it was secure. I inserted one of the fiberglass rods through the weight belt as a reference marker. Using my compass, I ensured that the line was on an east-west, or 180 degree, bearing. I swam back to my dive buddy, stretched out the other half of the transect line, secured it to the mushroom anchor, and used my compass to make sure the east-west bearing was still accurate. I then planted the other fiberglass rod through the mushroom anchor.

Now the survey could start.

My dive buddy and I swam east-west along the ten meter transect line with the underwater metal detector in hand. Covering two meters to north and south of the transect line with the metal detector, we would pick up pings and then mark their location on the Mylar survey plan slate. As the designated metal detector holder (aka “Wielder of Truth”), I would tap my dive buddy’s mask every time I heard a ping and my dive buddy would mark its location on the slate. After we cleared the ten meter transect line, we would measure and move the line two meters south and repeat the survey. When five survey tracts were completed, we would have covered a 10×10 meter area south of the site.

Believe it or not, the metal detector survey to delineate the Storm Wreck was a resounding success. All students and supervisors had an opportunity to conduct the survey around the northern, eastern, western, and southern periphery of the Storm Wreck site. LAMP staff hope to superimpose the results of the survey on an up-to-date site plan of the wreck. Piece of cake.

Figure 2. “Trust me, I’m an archaeologist.”

Figure 2. “Trust me, I’m an archaeologist.”

Photo Journal of Project SAMPHIRE: The First Five Days – Oban to Rasaay

By: Chelsea Colwell-Pasch

Project SAMPHIRE is now in full swing as the team island hops along Scotland’s Western coast and islands aboard DVS Kylebhan (Figure 1). The team travelled from Oban, mainland Scotland, to the Isle of Rasaay in the first five days, conducting archaeological surveys both above and below the water and spanning Mesolithic sites to nineteenth Century shipwrecks.

Figure 1. DVS Kylebhan is a 20 metre (67 feet) trawler converted to a dive charter boat. It can accommodate 12 passengers and is very comfortable for the SAMPHIRE team of six plus the two crew (Photo by: Chelsea Colwell-Pasch)

Figure 1. DVS Kylebhan is a 20 metre (67 feet) trawler converted to a dive charter boat. It can accommodate 12 passengers and is very comfortable for the SAMPHIRE team of six plus the two crew (Photo by: Chelsea Colwell-Pasch)

This year’s Project SAMPHIRE has six potential archaeological sites slated for investigation, however other sites were and are still being located during the course of the field work and added to the Project’s mandate. This blog is a photo journal of the first five days of Project SAMPHIRE’s journey and archaeological investigations.

Day One: Oban to Tobermory (Isle of Mull)

Figure 2. The steam Northwest to Tobermory, Isle of Mull from Oban on mainland Scotland.

Figure 2. The steam Northwest to Tobermory, Isle of Mull from Oban on mainland Scotland.

Figure 3.  Prof. Kurt Lambeck (Australian National University, Canberra) presenting his lecture on glacial rebound in Scotland at the Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS) (Photo by: Chelsea Colwell-Pasch).

Figure 3. Prof. Kurt Lambeck (Australian National University, Canberra) presenting his lecture on glacial rebound in Scotland at the Scottish Association for Marine Science (SAMS) (Photo by: Chelsea Colwell-Pasch).

Figure 4. A ‘surprise’ unknown wreck at Tobermory, Isle of Mull, and our docking area for our first night (Photo by: Chelsea Colwell-Pasch). Figure 4. A ‘surprise’ unknown wreck at Tobermory, Isle of Mull, and our docking area for our first night (Photo by: Chelsea Colwell-Pasch).

Day Two: Tobermory (Isle of Mull) to Isle of Eigg, then to Canna

Figure 5. Our travels by sea to Eigg then Canna.

Figure 5. Our travels by sea to Eigg then Canna.

Figure 6. Prof. Karen Hardy from ICREA, Barcelona (far right) showing SAMPHIRE team members Bob MackIntosh (far left), Drew Roberts (middle-left), Chelsea Colwell-Pasch (middle-right) lithics found on her coastal survey of Eigg (Photo by: Jonathan Benjamin).

Figure 6. Prof. Karen Hardy from ICREA, Barcelona (far right) showing SAMPHIRE team members Bob MackIntosh (far left), Drew Roberts (middle-left), Chelsea Colwell-Pasch (middle-right) lithics found on her coastal survey of Eigg (Photo by: Jonathan Benjamin).

Figure 7. Galmisdale Harbour on the Isle of Eigg where the first site survey for Project SAMPHIRE was conducted (Photo by: Chelsea Colwell-Pasch).

Figure 7. Galmisdale Harbour on the Isle of Eigg where the first site survey for Project SAMPHIRE was conducted (Photo by: Chelsea Colwell-Pasch).

Day Three: Canna, Loch Bay, Dunvegan and Uig.

Figure 8. The steam North from Canna to Loch Bay, the site of the second wreck, Dunvegan the planned night dock and Uig the actual night docking area.

Figure 8. The steam North from Canna to Loch Bay, the site of the second wreck, Dunvegan the planned night dock and Uig the actual night docking area.

Figure 9. SAMPHIRE divers Drew Roberts (right) and John McCarthy (left) preparing to dive in Loch Bay on the second project site (Photo by Chelsea Colwell-Pasch).

Figure 9. SAMPHIRE divers Drew Roberts (right) and John McCarthy (left) preparing to dive in Loch Bay on the second project site (Photo by Chelsea Colwell-Pasch).

Figure 10. Chelsea Colwell-Pasch in Uig, Isle of Skye at 22:30 with daylight still visible (Photo by: Jonathan Benjamin).

Figure 10. Chelsea Colwell-Pasch in Uig, Isle of Skye at 22:30 with daylight still visible (Photo by: Jonathan Benjamin).

Day Four: Uig, Loch Bay and Portree, Isle of Skye

Figure 11. The steam from Uig back to Loch Bay, then the long steam to Portree, our port for the night.

Figure 11. The steam from Uig back to Loch Bay, then the long steam to Portree, our port for the night.

Figure 12. SAMPHIRE diver Bob MackIntosh diving in Loch Bay on the projects second site investigation (Photo by: Jonathan Benjamin).

Figure 12. SAMPHIRE diver Bob MackIntosh diving in Loch Bay on the projects second site investigation (Photo by: Jonathan Benjamin).

Figure 13. Dolphins ‘bow-riding’ our vessel Kylebhan on our way to Portree, Isle of Skye (Photo by: Jonathan Benjamin).

Figure 13. Dolphins ‘bow-riding’ our vessel Kylebhan on our way to Portree, Isle of Skye (Photo by: Jonathan Benjamin).

Figure 14. At dock in Portree, Isle of Skye after a long steam from Loch Bay (Photo by: Chelsea Colwell-Pasch).

Figure 14. At dock in Portree, Isle of Skye after a long steam from Loch Bay (Photo by: Chelsea Colwell-Pasch).

Day Five: Portree, Isle of Sky to Clachan Harbour, Isle of Raasay

Figure 15. The steam from Portree to Clachan Harbour, Isle of Raasay.

Figure 15. The steam from Portree to Clachan Harbour, Isle of Raasay.

Figure 16. Clachan Harbour on the Isle of Raasay where the SAMPHIRE team was investigating the area for submerged prehistoric sites (Photo by: Chelsea Colwell-Pasch).

Figure 16. Clachan Harbour on the Isle of Raasay where the SAMPHIRE team was investigating the area for submerged prehistoric sites (Photo by: Chelsea Colwell-Pasch).

Figure 17. Snorkel survey of Clachan Harbour, Raasay for Mesolithic occupation by SAMPHIRE volunteer Chelsea Colwell-Pasch (Photo by: Jonathan Benjamin).

Figure 17. Snorkel survey of Clachan Harbour, Raasay for Mesolithic occupation by SAMPHIRE volunteer Chelsea Colwell-Pasch (Photo by: Jonathan Benjamin).

We are not even halfway through our field work around Scotland’s Western Isles and already Project SAMPHIRE 2014 has been a huge success. Stay informed by following the Project on Twitter (#SAMPHIRE, @WAScotland, @WessexArch, @CColwellPasch) and by checking out the daily posts on the Projects Blog page: http://blogs.wessexarch.co.uk/samphire/

Barunga: The adventures of a field school

The Ethnoarchaeology/Community Field School was held from the 22-28 June 2014. It was run at Barunga, an Aboriginal community in the Northern Territory, and aimed to teach students the values of working with a community to do archaeology.

What follows is a series of blog entries written before and during the field school that document the daily activities of those involved and reflect upon what was learned. In other words, you might want to grab a snack—this is going to be a long one!

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Maritime, Travel and Clyde-built Ships

By: Chelsea Colwell-Pasch

My name is Chelsea Colwell-Pasch and I am a post-graduate student studying maritime archaeology at Flinders University. I am in Scotland this June and July to conduct research for my thesis as well as partake in Wessex Archaeology’s Project SAMPHIRE as a volunteer research assistant. The exciting opportunity to partake in Project SAMPHIRE came about when Dr Jonathan Benjamin, formerly of Wessex Archaeology and current Co-investigator for the Project, took a lecturer position at Flinders University this past January. Dr Benjamin then became my thesis advisor and we began discussing the numerous resources and connections available in Scotland for someone in my position of studying a Clyde-built ship that wrecked in Australia (see Figure 1). The initial idea of a research trip to Scotland for thesis research then grew into a professional development prospect and an opportunity to cultivate a research and industry relationship between Flinders University and Wessex Archaeology. The international cooperation allows an excellent opportunity for professional, academic, volunteer and student involvement. Plus, maritime archaeology is an international discipline with trans-boundary elements and the obvious aspects of transport and travel throughout time.

Figure 1. Chelsea Colwell-Pasch reading an original Lloyd’s Register of Shipping at the Glasgow University Archives in Glasgow, Scotland (Photo by: Chelsea Colwell-Pasch).

Figure 1. Chelsea Colwell-Pasch reading an original Lloyd’s Register of Shipping at the Glasgow University Archives in Glasgow, Scotland (Photo by: Chelsea Colwell-Pasch).

I am halfway through my final year of study and well into my chosen thesis topic which is a multiphasic vessel biography on the wreck of Leven Lass employing the BULSI (Build, Use, Loss, Survival, and Investigation) system. The brig Leven Lass was built in Dumbarton, Scotland, by Denny & Rankine at Denny’s Shipyard number two, in 1839 (The Clyde Built Ships 2014). A brig was a two-masted sailing ship with square rigging on both masts and was commonly used as couriers on coastal routes (Encyclopaedia Britannica Online 2014). Leven Lass had routes between Limerick and Glasgow and then between North America (Canada and West Indies) and Glasgow. It was then sold on 16 September 1852, by Paton and Grant, and sailed from Scotland to Melbourne, Australia on 1 October 1852 by Captain Sholto Gardener Jamieson (1818-1882), arriving in 1853 (Glasgow Herald 17 September 1852:8; Lythgoe 2014; Wilson 2012). It spent the majority of its time in Southeast Australia as a post carrier between Adelaide, Melbourne, Hobart and Sydney and was considered “a remarkably fast sailer”, see Figure 2 (Glasgow Herald 17 September 1852:8).

Figure 2. A Glasgow Herald newspaper article from 1852 calling for cargo applications for Leven Lass’ voyage to Melbourne (Glasgow Herald 17 September 1852:8).

Figure 2. A Glasgow Herald newspaper article from 1852 calling for cargo applications for Leven Lass’ voyage to Melbourne (Glasgow Herald 17 September 1852:8).

As a consequence of my research, I wanted to understand how they deemed Leven Lass to be ‘remarkably fast’. The way they calculated the speed of a vessel was with the ‘measured mile’, which was a nautical mile marked by two pairs of markers. A nautical mile is 6080 feet/1.852 km in length, as opposed to the land based statute mile which is 5280 feet/1.609 km in length (White 2003). A ship would work up to full speed on a steady course, the markers would be in transit (in line with each other) and the time noted then noted again when the next set of markers lined up (White 2003). Usually the average was taken between two runs to allow for wind and tide changes (White 2003). Near Dumbarton where Leven Lass was launched, there is a run that is actually two consecutive miles with three sets of markers (see Figure 3). Ships speed was given in knots, not knots per hour as a knot is one nautical mile per hour (White 2003). This is but one facet of the research I have conducted while in Scotland. My trip has taught me the importance of primary research and how much can be gained by travelling abroad for my research. This trip has been more than useful and the result is a much more in-depth study, without which my thesis would have been limited, or even superficial.

Figure 3. The three sets of measured mile markers on the Isle of Aaran to the SW of Dumbarton (RCAHMS 2014).

Figure 3. The three sets of measured mile markers on the Isle of Aaran to the SW of Dumbarton (RCAHMS 2014).

Leven Lass was chosen as my thesis topic after the 2014 Flinders University Maritime Archaeology Field School conducted at Phillip Island, Victoria this past January (see Figure 4). The field school was centred on a wreck that was determined to be Leven Lass by a previous Flinders masters student who worked on the wreck during the 2012 Maritime Archaeology Field School (Wilson 2012). While the focus of that thesis was more on maritime cultural landscapes and shipwreck identification, my thesis is looking at the vessel’s life cycle or career, from design inception to archaeological investigation, and its broader implications for shipwreck studies, Scottish maritime diaspora and nineteenth century post-colonial Australian seafaring.

Figure 4. A Flinders University Maritime Archaeology Student, records the Clyde-built Leven Lass during the 2014 field school on Phillip Island, Victoria. Another field school is scheduled for February 2015 (Photo by: J. Benjamin).

Figure 4. A Flinders University Maritime Archaeology Student, records the Clyde-built Leven Lass during the 2014 field school on Phillip Island, Victoria. Another field school is scheduled for February 2015 (Photo by: J. Benjamin).

I have only been in Scotland a little over a week, though I have already visited the Glasgow University Archives, RCAHMS, Historic Scotland, the Mitchell Library, University of Edinburgh Library, and the Scottish Maritime Museum (Irvine) and met with various industry professionals. While these investigative avenues have been fruitful, any and all information that may be of value to my thesis research from the public would be appreciated and welcomed. Any information about Denny & Rankine shipbuilders would be especially valuable as there is little data available about them in the archives. I look forward to the rest of my Scotland adventure and to the valuable experiences to be gained with both Wessex Archaeology and with the communities around Scotland.

The SAMPHIRE team and I will be blogging and tweeting (as signal permits!) and we will keep progress reports as up-to-date as possible via the project blog. Please follow this year’s fieldwork (#SAMPHIRE) with Dr  Jonathan Benjamin (@jon_benj), Wessex Archaeology (@wessexarch), and me, Chelsea Colwell-Pasch (@CColwellPasch).

The project blog link: http://blogs.wessexarch.co.uk/samphire/

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References

Encyclopaedia Britannica Online 2014 “Brig”. Retrieved 3 June 2014 from: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/79477/brig.

Glasgow Herald 1852 “At Glasgow – For Melbourne, Port-Phillip”. 17 September: 8.

Lythgoe, Darrin 2014 Shetland Family History. Retrieved 23 May 2014 from: http://www.bayanne.info/Shetland/getperson.php?personID=I11228&tree=ID1.

RCAHMS 2014 Canmore: Isle of Aaran Measured Mile Markers. Retrieved 3 July 2014 from: http://canmoremapping.rcahms.gov.uk/index.php?action=do_advanced&list_z=0&sitename=&classterm1=MEASURED+MILE+MARKER+&sitediscipline=&idnumlink=&mapno=&site=&councilcode=&parish=&regioncode=&districtcode=&countycode=&ngr=&radiusm=0&collectionname=&bibliosurname=&biblioinits=&bibliotitle=&bibliodate=&bibliojournal=&submit=search.

The Clyde Built Ships 2014 Leven Lass. Electronic document. Retrieved 23 May 2014 from: http://www.clydeships.co.uk/view.php?ref=14432.

Wilson, Dennis D. 2012 The Investigation of Unidentified Wreck 784, Phillip Island, Victoria: Applying Cultural Landscape Theory and Hierarchy of Time to the Assessment of Shipwreck Significance. Unpublished Masters thesis, DEPT Flinders University, Adelaide.

White, Tony 2003 Polperro Cornish gem: Nautical Measured Mile Markers. Retrieved 3 July 2014 from: http://www.polperro.org/measuredmile.html.

A Journey Considering Belief

By Tegan Burton, Community Archaeology Field School

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This is me and Rachael Kandino. Rachael accompanied my journey from the first day to the last at the Community Archaeology Field School in Barunga, Northern Territory, June 2014. Rachael gave me the skin name Kotjan, after her mother Lilly Willika, a very special woman to many people. So now I am Rachael’s mother too.

As our first day in Barunga drew to a close I found myself accompanying Rachael and others to a local Christian convention at the nearby community of Beswick. When we arrived the service was well underway. Although it was a cold evening everyone was seated outside, on rugs on the ground, in a large circle, with the occasional small fire amongst the seated groups. While there we saw singing and dancing, preaching and healing, with men, women and children all participating.

As I sat in the role of observer, many questions came to mind that I didn’t know how to ask. Questions about how the dance movements developed, as some appeared reminiscent of traditional dance movements. Questions about the pastor’s emphasis on the involvement of all, the whole family, when I knew already that traditional Aboriginal culture locally was highly segregated by gender and also age. And questions about personal responses to the pastor’s words of hope, support, and healing.

Those first thoughts were to become my community project topic Christianity – Our Way.

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A picnic lunch by the water at Beswick Falls became the location of our first detailed conversation about Christianity, Barunga way.

From the very beginning it was clear that there can be different ideas coming from traditional Aboriginal ways and what Westerners generally consider Christian ways. However Aboriginal people are adapting their traditions and ‘can understand God through our way’ (Rachael Kendino, pers. comm. 2014).

Given the traditional Aboriginal connection to the spirit world, it is possible that Aboriginal people understand and embrace the idea of the Holy Spirit more readily than non-Aboriginal people.

Rachael feels that Christianity has brought about a community with less drinking and other drugs, and more discipline and respect. I heard this sentiment echoed by others as I collected the information needed for my community project through ongoing conversations.

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Rachael will soon be returning to Manyallaluk (also known as Eva Valley), as a practitioner for the church. As part of her church work she hopes to support the community by having barbecues and film nights, and to sell food to the community, to help them out. Rachael is keen to learn more Munanga (whitefella) way to help make this happen, if the end result can benefit community.

Like so many Aboriginal women I’ve met and worked with, Rachael is incredibly strong in spirit. She also has a great capacity to communicate with those like me – an Anglo student from the city. As my other guide in this journey, Claire Smith, said, Rachael understands a little of both ways and can see the similarities and differences.

Rachael travelled to Adelaide and undertook studies at Flinders University herself in 2011. She has a strong desire to keep on learning, all the time, and pass on what she has learnt to her children and community.

Blackfella way don’t say thank you. Whitefella way do. Thank you Rachael for accepting me in to your world, sharing Barunga, and sharing your stories of flying together, like the black crow and white cockatoo.