Tag Archives: #divingisnotforeveryone

Three shipwrecks for the register!: DEWNR Southeast Coast Shipwreck Survey, SA

Date: 27 November–­4 December 2014

Staff/Volunteers: Amer Khan (DEWNR); Simon Carter (DEWNR); Guy Williams (DEWNR); Anthony Virag (DEWNR); Dr Brad Duncan (NSW Office of Environment and Heritage); Kurt Bennett (Flinders University Volunteer); Daniel Petraccaro (Flinders University Volunteer) and David Hanna (DEWNR).

Amer Khan, SA state maritime heritage officer presenting the project to the Carpenter Rocks community. Courtesy of Anthony Virag.

Figure 1. Amer Khan, SA state maritime heritage officer presenting the project to the Carpenter Rocks community. Courtesy of Anthony Virag.

On Monday 1 December, the Carpenter Rocks community hall hosted Amer Khan who gave a talk about the Southeast Shipwreck Survey Project (Figure 1). A number of the local community turned out for the presentation and later shared their knowledge about the area. This provided Amer with new leads, which will hopefully warrant further investigations along the southeast coast. Brad Duncan also gave a presentation on the William Salthouse archaeology project in Victoria. This demonstrated to the community what maritime archaeologists actually do and how unlawful salvage damages everyone’s cultural heritage. When shown pictures of destruction caused by relic hunters, many shook their heads in disbelief. Both presentations were well received by the attendees.

The research team revisited Pisces Star on Tuesday 2 December. Kurt prepared himself for snorkeling out to the shipwreck to assess the condition of the vessel. Due to the currents surrounding the vessel, the snorkeler was tethered to a divers assistant onshore (Figures 2 and 3). Using an offset method from a shore based datum, the onshore team recorded three points marking the stern, midships and bow section. Pisces Star, although shipwrecked in 1997, will be registered on the South Australian shipwreck database and information made accessible for future research.

Next, the team surveyed an area northwest of Pisces Star, where a local abalone diver reported ship timbers. A swim line search consisting of five snorkelers, spreading 25m, covered an area of 150m to search for the timbers (Figures 4 and 5). No one located the reported timbers, but snorkelers observed five iron poles measuring 1m in length. Whilst the poles are cultural, they could not be linked to a shipwreck in the area. Carl and Gary von Stanke, local shipwreck enthusiasts, joined the team for the snorkel and shared their knowledge and history of the local shipwrecks.

Kurt Bennett, Carl von Stanke and Daniel Petraccaro recording Erie. Courtesy of Brad Duncan.

Figure 6. Kurt Bennett, Carl von Stanke and Daniel Petraccaro recording Erie. Courtesy of Brad Duncan.

Erie, the last vessel recorded on this expedition, is a 1940 clinker built transport vessel located at the north end of Lake Bonny in Canunda National Park. The survey team recorded the port (left) side of Erie measuring 5.25m in length. Unfortunately, the vessel was damaged by recent vandal activity where the port side had been pushed over and the keel snapped. Daniel, Kurt and Carl recorded the stem and planking using the baseline offset method (Figure 6).  In the short video below, Amer Khan talks about the construction and features of the vessel (*note—audio is quiet, it is recommended to turn up your volume).


On Wednesday 3 December, the survey team followed a lead of a possible shipwreck located in Cape Douglas. The site consisted of two timber posts, 4.25m apart. Daniel and Anthony excavated a 1m by 1m square trench around one of the posts to see if it was connected to other covered timbers (Figures 7 and 8). No other timbers were uncovered and concluded the posts were likely part of a slipway, jetty or fencing.

The project finished on Thursday 4 December, with the team driving back to Adelaide. In all, the project was a success with three vessels surveyed and will now be added to the shipwreck database. Other leads from the local community means, DEWNR will be visiting the southeast in the near future. Thank you to all the staff, volunteers and local community who have made the project go swimmingly. The whole week has been both educational and a joy—Carpenter “Rocks!”

by Kurt Bennett and Daniel Petraccaro

Maritime archaeologist, you say? You just strap on a tank and mask don’t you?


When I asked my mum and dad to picture a maritime archaeologist, they immediately described a diver fluttering about underwater searching for lost relics on the seafloor (Figure 1). To those in the know, the archaeologist/diver would resemble something quite different; an individual meticulously excavating and recording a submerged archaeological site. But can the definition of a maritime archaeologist be as simple as a diver that straps a tank (or two) to their back?  Before any work underwater is carried out, the type of diving apparatus that will be used must be taken into consideration. Without the diving component archaeology cannot be conducted underwater. I will discuss the different types of diving equipment necessary to carry out a pre-disturbance survey and excavation in an occupational setting, but will limit the topic to standard compressed air diving. Other diving classifications such as NITROX and mixed-gas diving can be used, but are limited to trained professionals and the offshore oil and gas industry. The most common type of diving in maritime archaeology is compressed air diving.

Figure 1. A SCUBA diver fluttering about underwater (author)

Figure 1. A SCUBA diver fluttering about underwater (author)

Diving apparatus: SCUBA & SSBA

What is the difference between SCUBA (Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus) and SSBA (Surface Supply Breathing Apparatus)? Apart from both acronyms containing the words ‘Breathing Apparatus’, the difference lies with the first two words, ‘Self Contained’ and ‘Surface Supply’. SCUBA is a self-contained unit in which the diver relies on a tank to deliver compressed air through a mouthpiece (Figure 2). Commercially developed in the 1950s by Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Emile Gagnan, SCUBA allowed people to explore the underwater world and by doing so, paved the way for maritime archaeology to develop into the discipline it is today (Green 1994: 2–4; Hosty and Stuart 2001: 5; Muckelroy 1978: 10–22).

Figure 2. Left, A maritime archaeologist using SCUBA; Right, SSBA diver entering the water. Notice attached air hose (Images courtesy of Donald A. Frey, Tufan Turanli, and Maddy Fowler)

Figure 2. Left, A maritime archaeologist using SCUBA; Right, SSBA diver entering the water. Notice attached air hose (Images courtesy of Donald A. Frey, Tufan Turanli, and Maddy Fowler)

SSBA is also a compressed air system, but exhibits slightly different features (Figure 2). The diver receives air from the surface from either a bank of compressed air tanks or an air compressor. The air is usually breathed through an AGA mask, band mask, or hard hat (Figure 3). A hard hat is a solid, one-piece helmet, usually associated with underwater construction. It provides head protection for the diver from falling debris. A band mask is made up of a solid face plate similar to the hard hat, but has a soft neoprene hood. An AGA mask is a full face mask secured to the diver’s head with a series of straps. SSBA can trace its origins back to early 19th century hard hat diving, and was an essential element of what is regarded as the first maritime archaeology survey—an investigation of crannogs in Loch Ness, Scotland in 1908 (Muckelroy 1978: 10, 12).

Different diving masks

Figure 3. Left Diver wearing a Gorski hard hat; Centre A band mask with soft neoprene hood; Right Diver wearing an Aga mask (Images courtesy of Rhiannon Phillips, Submarine Manufacturing and Products, and Maddy Fowler)

Which diving apparatus for what underwater method?

Different diving equipment will have advantages and disadvantages, depending on the type and extent of tasks that need to be performed. From my experience, SCUBA provides the freedom to cover a large area, as would be needed to conduct a pre-disturbance survey. The objective of a pre-disturbance survey is to survey and record a site as it appears on the seabed (Green 2004: 88; Tripathi 2005: 6). For more information on pre-disturbance survey methods see Lauren Davison’s blog post.

A diver with a ‘Self Contained’ breathing unit is free to travel as far as they want, subject to certain physiological and environmental restrictions. These include the strength of currents and amount of compressed air available. SSBA, by contrast, is restricted by the length of the equipment’s umbilical (which contains the air hose, communications link, etc.). Planning helps, but it is difficult to know how much umbilical is needed when the extent of the site is unknown. Other considerations for occupational diving include:

  • Environmental conditions (visibility, entrapment, water temperature, underwater terrain)
  • Hyperbaric/physiological (depth, frequency, duration, prior fitness)
  • Associated activity (manual handling, boat handling, dive platforms)
  • Other (dangerous marine animals, shipping movements)

Unfortunately, not all forms of diving equipment are affordable and/or available. In instances where only SCUBA equipment is available, the archaeology fieldwork plan will need to be adjusted to correspond to SCUBA’s limitations. Some of these limitations include the number of divers needed to conduct fieldwork, dive duration, and surface intervals between dives.

SSBA is used if the equipment is available and/or required under Australia’s Occupational Diving Standard (AS/NZS2299.1). This standard requires the use of SSBA when a dive project includes the use of surface machinery that is not under direct control of one or more divers, such as the water dredge or airlift. Both the water dredge and airlift are designed to remove spoil from the area of excavation and deposit it away from the site. Both have their advantages and disadvantages; for a discussion of this topic see Green (2004), and for more details about underwater excavation methods see Marc Brown’s blog post.

Maritime archaeology projects within Australia that involve commercial interests and the use of equipment such as dredges must utilise SSBA (Figure 4). Maritime archaeologists must hold an accreditation with the Australian Diver Accreditation Scheme (ADAS) to dive using SSBA. SSBA must also be used where participating divers undergo physical exertion. Projects reliant on SSBA must consider such factors as the use of a compressor, length of SSBA umbilicals, available bottom time, and the need for fuel and qualified personnel (a team of five is required for a two person SSBA dive team).

During each diving day both SSBA and SCUBA equipment must be set up, broken down, and tested on a daily basis. The equipment must also be maintained, usually on an annual basis. This is costly in terms of time and money, particularly for projects that are operating on a tight schedule and budget. Ultimately, both SCUBA and SSBA enable maritime archaeologists to undertake any underwater task, provided it meets occupational standards.

Figure 4. ADAS Part 2 divers excavating with a dredge (Image courtesy of Andy Viduka).

Figure 4. ADAS Part 2 divers excavating with a dredge (Image courtesy of Andy Viduka)


Before commencing archaeological investigations underwater, it is important to consider the apparatus best suited for the job and whether it complies with occupational standards. Because every site is different, dive equipment and planning will undoubtedly vary. Limited access to diving equipment may force a project to work with what is available and plan diving operations accordingly. With these factors in mind, the question remains: is a maritime archaeologist simply a mask and a tank? The answer is no, as there is a lot more to conducting maritime archaeology than just fluttering about underwater.


Akal, Tuncay

2008      Surveillance and Protection of Underwater Archaeological Sites: Sea Guard. Protecting Underwater Archaeology, Press Room. Electronic document, http://www.acoustics.org/press/155th/akal.htm, accessed 15 October 2013.

Green, Jeremy

2004      Maritime Archaeology: A Technical Handbook, Second Edition. Elsevier Academic Press, USA.

Hosty, Kieran and Iain Stuart

1994      Maritime Archaeology over the last twenty years. In Maritime Archaeology in Australia: A Reader, edited by Mark Staniforth and Michael Hyde, pp.5-12. Southern Archaeology, South Australia.

Muckelroy, Keith

1978      Maritime Archaeology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Submarine Manufacturing and Products

Kirby Morgan 18B Band Mask. Electronic document, http://www.smp-ltd.co.uk/product/productid/193/productname/Kirby-Morgan-18B-Band-Masks/, accessed 3 October 2013.

Tripathi, Alok

2005      Marine Archaeology (Recent Advances). Agam Kala Prakashan, India.