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Category Archives: Archaeology and heritage news
By Cassandra Morris
On the 2nd and 3rd of September, the Australasian Institute for Maritime Archaeology (AIMA) held their annual conference at the Queensland Museum, South Bank, Brisbane. This year’s theme was ‘Forging the Links’, looking at the connections made to effectively preserve our maritime heritage. A group from Flinders consisting of students and staff travelled to the conference, including a mix of presenters and those there for moral support. Once the conference was in full swing, Flinders appeared to make up a good portion of the attendees, especially when taking into account the number of past students present. Presentations given at the conference were of a wide variety – ranging from students presenting on their thesis ideas and progress (myself included) to recent wreck discoveries, cannibalism, investigation techniques and current research projects. Three public lectures were also given as part of the conference which anyone was welcome to join. By the end of the two days, it was clear that Flinders had done well with approximately half the presentations at the conference given by current staff and students. At the closing of the conference awards were given to presenters for ‘best presentations’. This year our own Wendy van Duivenvoorde won the award for ‘Best Conference Paper’ and Honours student Maddy Fowler won ‘Best Student Conference Paper’.
The conference also presented an opportunity for a small initiative to gain recognition outside of South Australia. This initiative, “Take the Plunge – Protect Australia’s Heritage”, is a student initiated cause to promote the need for the Australian Government to ratify the UNESCO 2001 Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage. Currently based through Facebook, the initiative has six pre-written letters, addressed to prominent governmental members, which are available for everyone to download, add personal details, and post. Alternatively, these letters can be emailed to their addressees. AIMA 2011 Conference was the perfect opportunity for the initiative to get further feedback from professionals at the event, as well as promote its cause as much as possible. Throughout the two days, Flinders students (many of the student attending the conference were actually the initial ‘Plunge’ team and later its Committee) could be seen hunting down conference goers in the tea breaks. The sound of paper and pens was soon audible below the conversational chatter, as the conference attendees took to the initiative, aiding its expansion by offering advice and signing all six letters each. Collecting all of the letters (over 100) the ‘Plunge’ then posted them on behalf of everyone.
This initiative was also encouraged through two additional aspects. A presentation was given about the group by the now President of the ‘Plunge’, Danielle Wilkinson. It detailed how the ‘Plunge’ was started, choices made, efforts for funding and recognition, and most importantly future plans for the initiative. In addition, a poster was made for presentation at the Conference, summarising the details contained on the Facebook page and in the lecture. Created by the author and Danielle Wilkinson, the poster was a great success, giving people an idea about what the initiative was about, without being overwhelming. The poster was awarded ‘Best Conference Poster’ at the closing ceremony. Due to the feedback received through the Conference, from those signing letters, viewing the poster and comments made regarding the presentation, ‘Take the Plunge – Protect Australia’s Heritage’ has improved and supercharged its efforts. There are many ideas in the works, scheduled for the remainder of this year and early next year. But, please don’t wait for the ‘Plunge’ to come to you…. Take the Plunge and download the letters today!
‘Take the Plunge-Protect Australia’s Heritage’ is sponsored by AIMA, Flinders University, Flinders University Archaeological Society, Society for Underwater Historical Research and the Flinders University Underwater Club.
Hon Tony Abbott, Leader of the Opposition. Letter: http://docs.com/DTWD.
Email Through: email@example.com.
Hon Kevin Rudd, Minister for Foreign Affairs. Letter: http://docs.com/DSS5.
Email Through: Kevin.Rudd.MP@aph.gov.au.
Australian National Commission for UNESCO. Letter: http://docs.com/DSS6.
Email Through: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Department of Veterans’ Affairs Letter: http://docs.com/DSS1.
Email Through: GeneralEnquiries@dva.gov.au.
Senator Kim Carr, Minster for Innovation, Industry, Science and Research. Letter: http://docs.com/EDT8.
Email Through: email@example.com.
Contact ‘The Plunge’ team through their email if you have any feedback or ideas: firstname.lastname@example.org
Searching for a Saint’s Stables (a tale of one site, two trenches, seven days of excavation, 16 archaeologists, 100 primary school students and hundreds of domestic artefacts)
Mary MacKillop may be Australia’s first saint, but a core part of her story revolves around her passion for providing schooling for all children. At Penola she and her two sisters began teaching the Catholic children of the district in their own cottage, then the church, and finally a disused stables owned by William McDonald on an allotment at the corner of Queen and Bowden Streets. The stables were only used as a school for one year between 1866 and May 1867 until a purpose-built school was ready, but it was on the 19th March 1866 that Mary is generally acknowledged to have begun to lead a religious life. This is the date that the Sisters of St Joseph of the Sacred Heart is officially recognised as being founded (http://www.visitmarymackillop.com.au/where-it-all-began-penola.html), giving the site of the stables a critical role to play in the Mary MacKillop story. The property remained in the McDonald family until 1925 when it was transferred to The Congregation of the Sisters of Saint Joseph of the Sacred Heart, South Australia Inc. The stables were demolished sometime between 1909 and 1925 and the site is now known as MacKillop Memorial Park.
We excavated one trench at the front of the block (where a previous electromag survey had identified a ‘hot spot’. In the end this turned out to be the limestone bedrock that gives the Limestone Coast its name and nothing to do with archaeological artefact signatures) and two at the rear, hoping to intersect the site of the stables. Trench A at the front turned out to be the photogenic trench and contained the majority of artefacts, but Trench B kept the classes from the Mary MacKillop Memorial School enthused for days by giving them the chance to excavate a real site. We now know that it’s possible to fit at least a dozen kids in a 2 x 2m trench, along with four archaeologists, without crowding.
Hardly a day went by without visitors to the excavation, almost all of whom had watched Time Team and were excited just to see the process of archaeology in action. Some were driving through Penola en route to Melbourne or Adelaide (one couple had come from Perth, heard about it on the radio and decided to drop in on their way), others were locals who remembered the site. One visitor was the great grandson of William McDonald, who originally owned the allotment and allowed Mary MacKillop to use the stables as a temporary school, another was a council worker who helped landscape it into a park in 1971; two others had played on the block as children in the 1920s and 30s. All of them were curious to know more about what we were doing and what we’d found.
Despite the rain (and the cold) everyone persevered and worked to excavate a wide range of domestic items, including ceramic and glass fragments, black facetted glass buttons, glass and ceramic beads, shell buttons, copper alloy hooks and eyes, thimbles, pins, a lamp base and coins dating variously from 1839, 1860 and the 1870s. Because the artefact bearing layers were mainly clay, we wet sieved most of Trench A’s deposits, recovering many (many) tiny glass beads, some so small that they lodged in the 2mm mesh of the smallest sieves.
Some of the most interesting items in terms of our original goal were the 20 or so slate pencils, most of which were recovered from Trench A (the single one that was recovered from Trench B towards the very end of the excavations prompted cheering), along with small fragments of possible writing slate.
We didn’t find the location of the stables building (the concensus by the end of the week was that it was most likely located in the one third of the block that we didn’t excavate), but the high number of slate pencils does suggest a schooling function for the site. Slate fragments, slate pencils (sometimes wax, graphite and steatite pencils as well), buttons, pins, marbles and stoneware ink bottles are all common finds on school house sites in the US (see papers in Beisaw and Gibb 2009 The Archaeology of Institutional Life), as well as Australia. They are also found on ordinary domestic (house) sites as well, although in fewer numbers. William McDonald also ran a school at Penola, however, so we can’t be certain yet whether these items relate to Mary MacKillop’s time there or not.
The Team: Shaun Adams, Rhiannon Agutter, Susan Arthure, Angeline Buckler, Cherrie Delieuen, Samantha Fidge, Rikke Hammer, Mark Hoey, Sarah Hutchinson, Scott Jacob, Clare Leevers, Sarah Nahabedian, Vanessa Orange, Rachel Power, Hayley Prentice and Chantal Wight.
You can see the TEN and Nine network television news coverage of the excavations (including interviews with Clare, Shaun and Sister Chris) here.
We would like to thank the wonderful Penola community for their support of the project (especially Tony for loaning us his shed and Sisters Chris and Mary from the Sisters of St Joseph for their wonderful hand-made morning teas and lunches) and for visiting us on site. The ladies at the Mary MacKillop Interpretive Centre gave us a fabulous dinner on Thursday night, complete with entertainment and a tour of the St Joseph’s school house and centre. Andy, Darren and Bear at Whiskas Woolshed gave us a four course farewell dinner on the last night. Thanks also to Andy for organising the impromptu tour of Yallum Park so that we could meet his dad and marvel at his magnificent house.
This is guest post by Oliver Spiers, Trainee Curator- British Museum who graduated from our program early in 2011. You can read Olly’s thesis here [pdf].
Having recently completed a Masters in Cultural Heritage Management at Flinders there comes a point where you finally submit, take a sigh of relief and then think ‘what the hell am I going to do now?’ I was lucky enough to come across a traineeship at the British Museum called the Future Curators project.
by Natalie Bittner.
We offer you the public of South Australia a centre of entertainment unique in this state. Every luxury, every thought, every care that 27 years of experience dictates, that modern science knows, is here for your comfort, your convenience, your service. We present the showplace of Australia, the Ozone Theatre Glenelg
(From the program distributed at the Gala opening night of the Ozone Theatre, Glenelg November 5th 1937)
In the next few weeks, the fate of the Glenelg Cinema complex will be decided. The cinema has been closed since the end of January 2009 with no development on the site and a drop in visitor numbers to the Eastern end of the Jetty Road precinct noticed by nearby traders. In the week following its closure, the Wallis cinema company put up most of the interior fixtures for sale, including the seats and doors.
Having been designed by architect Kenneth Milne in 1936, the Glenelg Ozone Theatre (as it was then known) consisted of a single cinema screen, and had twin marble grand staircases and tartan carpeting throughout. Known for his impeccable detailing, the façade of the building includes stone from Basket Range in the Adelaide Hills, horizontal fins and the current vertical signage is the same element used in the original construction. Advertising material from 1938 says that the Ozone Theatre had air-conditioning throughout, a ladies smoking lounge, and a baby-friendly viewing area where mothers with screaming children ‘will not be embarrassed’ (The Advertiser Saturday October 9, 1937). On the 5th of November 1937 Glenelg Ozone Theatre’s gala opening night consisted of a technicolour screening of A Star is Born with shorts including How to Vote. (The Mail Saturday November 6th, 1937).